Ancient Roman Festivals, Celebrations and Holidays (A–Fe)

Updated on April 8, 2020
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Haunty is a history buff who enjoys reading and writing about ancient history and cultures from around the world.

Ancient Rome was home to a wide variety of raucous celebrations and extended holidays, many of which existed to honor specific deities.
Ancient Rome was home to a wide variety of raucous celebrations and extended holidays, many of which existed to honor specific deities. | Source

This article lists and explains important ancient Roman festivals, holidays and celebrations in alphabetical order from A to Fe. Each occasion is described in more detail below. Links to articles listing the celebrations from Fg to K, L to O and P to Z can be found at the bottom of this page.

Ancient Roman Festivals and Holidays A–Fe

  • Agonalia: Celebrated Janus, the god of the beginning and the end
  • The Anna Parenna Festival: Celebrated Anna Parenna, the goddess of the circle of the year
  • The Apollonian Games: Celebrated Apollo, the god of restoration and healing
  • The Bona Dea Festival: Celebrated Bona Dea, a deified woman
  • Cerealia: Celebrated Ceres, the god of the harvest
  • Equirra: Celebrated Mars, the god of war
  • Faunalia: Celebrated Faunus, the god of fertility
  • Feralia: Celebrated the dead (similar to today's All Saints' Day)

Janus, the god of the beginning and end, for whom Agonalia was celebrated, is often depicted as having two faces—one that looks into the future and another that looks into the past.
Janus, the god of the beginning and end, for whom Agonalia was celebrated, is often depicted as having two faces—one that looks into the future and another that looks into the past. | Source

Agonalia

Celebrated: January 9th

Janus is the god of the beginning, the end and portals in Roman mythology. According to legend, Janus was first worshiped by Romulus, one of the two traditional founders of Rome.

Janus is usually portrayed as having two faces, one of which looks forward to the future while the other looks backward into the past. The god's image first showed up on an early ancient Roman coin with a ship’s prow on the backside. Much like how people play "heads or tails" today, boys in ancient Rome used to toss these coins and call "heads or ships."

Agonalia was an ancient Roman festival observed in honor of Janus. During the course of the observance, the rex sacrorum, or officiating priest, sacrificed a ram. Offerings of incense, wine, cakes and barley were also made. These were called Januae.

Numa Pompilius, the second king in the Roman tradition, dedicated the famous Ianus geminus to the god Janus, thus paying homage to him. According to popular belief of the time, passing through the Ianus geminus, which was an arcade at the northeast end of the Roman Forum, brought luck to soldiers who were on their way to war.

One side of this ancient coin depicts Anna Parenna, the goddess of the circle of the year.
One side of this ancient coin depicts Anna Parenna, the goddess of the circle of the year.

The Anna Parenna Festival

Celebrated: March 15th

Anna Parenna is the goddess of the circle of the year. The name Anna is actually the feminine form of annus, which means year. Anna Parenna was celebrated in March, which was the first month of the Roman calendar. More specifically, it was celebrated on the 15th, or ides, of March. Technically, Mars is the god of the first month of the coming year, whereas Anna Parenna was commonly portrayed as an old woman who represented the year that had just passed.

Ancient Roman legend has it that, in 494 B.C.E., the plebeians (common citizens) left Rome to politically pressure the patricians (aristocracy), who were in dire need of their labor for military purposes. They sought and found refuge on the Mons Sacer, a mountain near Rome. Nearly running short of food and with the constant threat of starvation, they turned to Anna, an old woman from Bovillae, who provided them with food on a daily basis. After the re-establishment of peace, the plebeians made her one of their deities and called her Parenna, which means "enduring" or "lasting throughout the whole year."

On the day of the Anna Parenna Festival, the commoners of the city of Rome visited Campus Martius, a field outside the walls. They would lay about on the grass, often pitching tents or building simple huts out of stakes and branches with togas
stretched across the tops. They drank, danced and sang, and they only returned to the city at night—often deeply intoxicated. As they drank, they offered prayers to Anna Parenna to grant them a lifespan of as many years as the number of cups of wine they could consume.

The Apollonian Games, which initially comprised a single-day affair, were so popular among citizens that they were extended to take place over the course of eight days.
The Apollonian Games, which initially comprised a single-day affair, were so popular among citizens that they were extended to take place over the course of eight days.

The Apollonian Games

Celebrated: July 6th–13th

Apollo was an ancient Greek god who was adopted by Rome as a deity of healing and restoration during a plague in the 5th century B.C.E. A few hundred years later after it seemed that Hannibal's army would get the upper hand over the Romans in the Second Punic War, priests decided to hold games in Apollo's honor in hopes of receiving divine intervention from him.

The Apollonian Games (also known as the Ludi Apollinares) were first held in 212 B.C.E. Initially, the celebrations were held on July 13th, but soon they morphed into an 8-day event due to their huge success with the public.

From the first day, the Apollonian Games showed signs of Greek influence with chariot races and scenic shows— both clearly Greek customs—offered for theatrical entertainment. As a part of the event, Apollo was offered a sacrificed ox.

Great feasts were held during the Apollonian Games, and many citizens participated. Two days were devoted to races and games in the Circus Maximus, a spacious outdoor arena, while the other six were devoted to theatrical plays and market fairs.

Unlike many other holidays devoted gods and goddesses, Bona Dea was celebrated exclusively by women.
Unlike many other holidays devoted gods and goddesses, Bona Dea was celebrated exclusively by women. | Source

The Bona Dea Festival

Celebrated: May 1st

The ancient Bona Dea Festival, also known as Maia Maiesta, was observed only by women; men were not permitted to take part in the occasion. The observance honored Bona Dea, who was known variously as the daughter, sister or wife of the ancient Roman fertility god, Faunus.

Much like Anna Parenna, Bona Dea was an actual woman who was deified after being unjustly murdered by her husband. Bona Dea revealed her prophesies to women only. The caretakers of her temple were all women, and all of her rites were performed exclusively by women as well.

Held on May 1st, the Bona Dea holiday commemorated the day that the temple of the goddess had been dedicated on the Aventine Hill in Rome. Although the ceremonies and rituals were carried out by vestal virgins and respectable matrons, they apparently included elements of phallic worship and the reciting of indecencies that were not to be repeated in front of the uninitiated. Without a doubt, the celebration of the Bona Dea Festival strengthened the Roman belief that the month of May was unlucky for marriage.

Ceralia was celebrated primarily by plebeians to appease Ceres, as a bad harvest could result in their starvation.
Ceralia was celebrated primarily by plebeians to appease Ceres, as a bad harvest could result in their starvation. | Source

Cerealia

Celebrated: April 19th

Ceres, the goddess of grain and harvests, was commonly equated with the Greek goddess, Demeter. Celebrations in her honor were carried out in many places in the ancient world, but Cerealia originated in Rome, where she was honored at her temple on the Aventine Hill alongside two other important fertility deities, Liber and his female counterpart, Libera. A similar holiday called Thesmophoria was celebrated in ancient Greece.

Celebrations of Ceres centered around the activity of plebeians, as they often suffered starvation when there was a shortage of grain. In many places, Cerealia was celebrated only by Roman matrons who abstained from wine and other earthly pleasures for a number of days preceding the occasion. People in mourning were not permitted to show up at the celebration, so it likely was not celebrated after the Battle of Cannae, during which 50,000 Roman troops were slaughtered by Hannibal's forces.

It is sometimes theorized that April Fools’ Day is an old relic of Cerealia because it is also held in April. To back this theory, some scholars refer to an ancient Roman legend in which Ceres’ daughter, Proserpine, was dragged off to the underworld by Pluto. Ceres, hearing the echos of her daughter's cries, tried to follow her voice, but it proved to be a fool’s errand, as locating the echos' source in the underworld was impossible.

Equirria was held twice annually and involved racing horses to prepare them and their riders for upcoming spring excursions.
Equirria was held twice annually and involved racing horses to prepare them and their riders for upcoming spring excursions. | Source

Equirria

Celebrated: February 27th and March 14th

According to legend, Romulus, one of the two brothers who founded Rome, began the Equirria tradition and dedicated it to Mars, the god of war. Equirria was held on both February 27th and March 14th and, for the most part, involved racing horses.

Scholars theorize that the two annual Equirrias were held little more than two weeks apart from each other because they were opportunities to start training horses and warriors in public for upcoming military excursions that were typically undertaken by Roman soldiers each spring. The later Equirria might also have been related to Mamuralia, which was also held on March 14th.

Faunalia celebrated faunus, the god of the forest and fertility.
Faunalia celebrated faunus, the god of the forest and fertility.

Faunalia

Celebrated: December 5th and February 13th

Faunus, the god of the forest and fertility in ancient Roman mythology, was often thought to be the source of eerie noises heard in thick woods. Faunalia, a festival held in Faunus' honor, was observed primarily by farmers and other rural workers on December 5th with games and feasting. However, city-dwellers also adopted the tradition, and most celebrated it on February 13th and for a shorter period of time.

Faunus was known as either the brother, father or husband of Bona Dea, the goddess of prophecy. Other fertility gods like Lupercus (associated with Lupercalia) and Inuus (fertilizer of cattle) were believed to be equivalents of Faunus. The Fauni, or fauns, were spirits of the forest similar to the satyrs of Greek tradition.

Feralia was celebrated annually by ancient Romans to honor the spirits of the dead.
Feralia was celebrated annually by ancient Romans to honor the spirits of the dead. | Source

Feralia

Celebrated: February 21st

Feralia signified the culmination of a one-week-long celebration honoring the manes, or spirits of the dead. This Roman tradition began on February 13th with Parentalia, a private celebration honoring deceased family members, and ended on February 21st with Feralia, a more communal public holiday.

On this day, people placed gifts and offerings on the graves of deceased friends and family members to celebrate the anniversary of the funeral feast. Feralia is somewhat similar to All Souls’ Day, a well-known Christian holiday that is still observed by many.

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    • profile image

      Cacad 

      5 years ago

      Thanks so much for this wonderful arlcite; this is the kind of thing that continues me though out the day. I’ve been searching around for your arlcite after I heard about them from a friend and was thrilled when I was able to find it after searching for some time. Being an avid blogger, I’m happy to see others taking initiative and contributing to the community. I just wanted to comment to show my appreciation for your post as it’s very encouraging, and many writers do not get the credit they deserve. I am sure I’ll be back and will spread the word to my friends.

    • profile image

      Farah 

      5 years ago

      Lovely post Sarah,We love festivals in our home! We have prtety much every month a celebration, we celebrate all the festivals that you have mentioned and a few more, we have our religious festivals throughout the year as well, add to that the birthdays in our family and this makes for a very festive year. I think the only quite month is August in our home.It used to be more strenuous in the beginning, but after a couple of years we got so used to all the preparation that it became second nature and we enjoyed it so much that we would not want to miss them.We always had festivals throughout the year, even when I was a child, I just could not imagine a year without these events.Maggie

    • profile image

      charlotte 

      8 years ago

      hello

    • Haunty profile imageAUTHOR

      Haunty 

      9 years ago from Hungary

      Thank you, Stan. Much appreciated from a HubPages icon like you. I guess I could call it fun, because this is what I'm interested in.

    • Stan Fletcher profile image

      Stan Fletcher 

      9 years ago from Nashville, TN

      Great hub Haunty. And fabulous artwork. I'm glad there are hubbers like you who are willing to do this much research!!! :) I really enjoyed it.

    • Haunty profile imageAUTHOR

      Haunty 

      9 years ago from Hungary

      You're welcome, suziecat. Thanks for stopping by.

    • suziecat7 profile image

      suziecat7 

      9 years ago from Asheville, NC

      Interesting Hub. I learned something new. Thanks.

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