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Dia de los Muertos: History and Meaning of the Day of the Dead

Dia de los Muertos has a lot of history and meaning for the indigenous people of Peru.

Dia de los Muertos has a lot of history and meaning for the indigenous people of Peru.

How Is Dia de los Muertos Celebrated in Other Countries?

The history and meaning of El Dia de los Muertos (the Day of the Dead) go back to before the Spanish Conquest. The festival, celebrated across Latin America on 2nd November, includes a mixture of indigenous Latin American and Christian beliefs. It has some similarities to Halloween but is a unique festival with its own history and traditions, and it is celebrated in different ways in different countries.

Dia de los Muertos, traditional food in Peru.

Dia de los Muertos, traditional food in Peru.

History and Meaning of Dia de los Muertos

Before the Spanish and Portuguese colonised large parts of the Americas, bringing the Catholic church in their wake, the Indigenous peoples of Latin America followed their own native religions. These religions had beliefs in the importance of maintaining a connection with dead ancestors; hence, you can still see today many pre-Columban tombs across the region, where living relatives of the dead person would have left food and other 'offerings' to keep the dead spirit content.

People at this time believed a discontented spirit would return to haunt the family and would bring bad luck. This 'ancestor worship', as it is sometimes called, was very important to indigenous civilizations like the Incas and Aztecs, as well as finding some expression also in the shamanistic belief systems of the rainforest peoples. There are still many popular ghost stories centred on the night before the day of the dead—much like the Halloween tradition of Europe and North America.

The Catholic church did its best to establish Catholic doctrine across the continent. While they were successful in converting the indigenous population to Christian observances such as attending mass, they did not entirely eradicate native superstitions and beliefs. Many Latin American people today, especially indigenous peoples, believe that a Shaman can help to cure their illnesses. Others, such as the Mayan peoples of Guatemala, leave traditional spirit offerings at Catholic shrines, such as a bird feather or a lucky coin.

The history and meaning of the Dia de los Muertos combine both Catholic and indigenous traditions. When the Spanish arrived in Mexico, they found an Aztec tradition thousands of years old involving the use of skulls to honour the dead. In Mexico, skulls are still an important part of celebrations, but today they make 'sugar skulls' and wear skull masks rather than using the real thing! Other Latin American countries don't use skulls to mark the Dia de los Muertos but instead build altars at the graves of loved ones where they leave offerings.

As in many Catholic countries across the world, the Day of the Dead is a day to visit the graves of dead family members and leave candles or flowers. However, in keeping with the indigenous tradition of maintaining a connection between living and dead family members, the Dia de los Muertos is not a sombre occasion but more of a joyous family get-together. Indigenous people, in particular, celebrate the day by holding something of a festival in the local graveyard, complete with music, chatter and ice cream. Outside the walls, there will often be stalls selling food and drink, with something of a street party going on.

How It Is Celebrated in Different Parts of Latin America

  • Mexico has some of the most well-known and flamboyant 'Dia de los Muertos traditions'. These include wearing skull masks or painting the face to look like a skull. People also make 'sugar skulls'. The video above gives a great insight into Mexican celebrations at this time of year.
  • Brazil celebrates finados on 2nd November. Families get together to pray for loved ones who have died. Like other Latin American countries, the day is a positive expression of love for those who have passed on, and people visit the graves of relatives with flowers and candles.
  • Peru / Ecuador: In the Andean countries, the Dia de los Muertos is especially important to the Quichua people, the descendants of the Incas. People visit the graves of relatives and create altars of ofrendas (offerings) at the graves, such as flowers and candles. There are parties in the street, sometimes in the cemetery itself! Traditional food is cuy (roast guinea pig), flat cakes shaped like gingerbread men and many drink chicha, the local homemade beer.
  • In Haiti, people also flock to cemeteries, but as well as leaving candles and flowers for the dead, they also pray to Baron Samedi, the guardian spirit of the dead, to help them have luck in future. In Haiti, the day of the dead is really two days, as the celebrations last longer than in other Latin American countries. The African heritage of Haiti gives their Day of the Dead celebrations a unique voodoo influence: during the festivities, people dance all night at peristyles (voodoo temples).
Example of a Dia de los Muertos altar

Example of a Dia de los Muertos altar

Ideas for Celebrating the Day of the Dead

  • Make an altar to commemorate a loved one. You don't need to go to their graveside but can do this in your home. Set aside a small niche in a quiet place and add a photo of the person, some candles and flowers, and maybe a special object that reminds you of them.
  • Visit the graveside of any relatives who have died. Bring fresh flowers and take some time to tidy up the grave as a mark of affection and respect for the person who has passed on. Take some time to remember all the good times you had together in a spirit of celebration and gratitude.
  • Make skull masks at home or in the classroom. This is a chance to explain to children about the different festivals that are celebrated around the world and to compare the similarities between Dia de los Muertos and Halloween. Here is a link to a print-and-cut skull mask. You can colour it as brightly as you like!
  • Make your own sugar skulls. Check out the recipe in this article. It also has good ideas for Day of the Dead altars.
  • Try some day of the dead face-painting. The video below will show you how to face-paint a Dia de los Muertos skull, step-by-step. Or read this article for more information on the day of the dead face-painting: "Meaning of Dia de los Muertos Face Painting".

© 2011 Marie McKeown


Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on October 01, 2017:

Thanks for your comment. It is often called 'dia de muertos' in Mexico, you are right, but other Spanish speakers - in my experience - call it 'dia de los muertos' which is more grammatically correct. That's my reason for using 'los' but there is a good case for using the Mexican name as that is the country whose traditions for this holiday are best known among English-speakers.

Silvia on September 30, 2017:

The actual name of such an important tradition is Día de Muertos!

Sgarinf the correct name is very important for the passing of culture.

Día de LOS muertos is a litery reverse translation from English to Spanish.

Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on November 04, 2013:

Thanks Anita!

Anita Knowles on November 02, 2013:

Hi, Marie. What a wonderful post on the Day of the Dead. Just a heads-up that I'm linking it to a blog I'm putting up about the holiday so readers can find the abundance of info you have here. Thanks for sharing such great stuff!

bryan on October 30, 2011:

i am lerning about in my school and its sad but nice

Simone Haruko Smith from San Francisco on April 19, 2011:

Oh, I love El Dia de los Muertos! I really enjoyed experiencing it while traveling in Mexico. What an awesome holiday- and what an awesome Hub!

Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on April 19, 2011:

I was lucky enough to catch El Dia de los Muertos when travelling in Peru - coming from Ireland where All Souls Day is a sombre affair, the carnival atmosphere took me by surprise! It was great ...

bbqsmokersite from Winter Haven, Florida on April 18, 2011:

This is a fantastic post on El Dia de los Muertos! I had the honor of living with a family for one month in the city of Puebla, Mexico. Was not there for this celebration, but I did buy some figurines and sugar Calaveras!