Mexican Christmas Celebrations and Traditions
When most English-speakers think of Christmas, they think of the customs and traditions which originated in Northern Europe, like Christmas trees, evergreen wreaths, Santa Claus, mistletoe, and more. However, Mexican Christmas traditions are very different from the holiday celebrations in the United States. Christmas in Mexico is influenced by Spanish as well as indigenous culture.
In this article, we'll go through some of the traditions that people in Mexico celebrate at Christmas time, but keep in mind that many of these customs and celebrations vary across Mexico from region to region. Many of them are also changing with the influence of other cultures (most notably that of the United States).
In This Article
- Important dates in the Mexican Christmas season
- Traditional Mexican Christmas food
- Other traditions (e.g., decorations and entertainment)
Fun Fact: The Wise Men Bring the Gifts in Mexico!
In the United States, it's Santa who brings children gifts on Christmas Eve. In Mexico, however, the big day of gift-giving is January 6, called "Día de los Tres Reyes Magos" (Three King's Day). This is the date that wise men brought gifts to the Christ child.
Origins of Christmas in Mexico
Christianity arrived in Mexico along with Spanish Catholic priests in the 16th century. With the priests and Catholicism came the celebration of Christian holidays, including Christmas.
Some of the Christmas traditions that Mexicans celebrate today are a result of the influence of these first priests, though many have grown and changed over time, and others have been added as a result of interactions with other cultures.
The Christmas traditions in Mexico today are a blend of indigenous culture, Spanish heritage, and many other influences.
Important Dates in the Mexican Christmas Season
- December 3: Start of the novenas to honor the Virgin of Guadalupe
- December 12: Feast day of the Virgin of Guadalupe
- December 16–24: Las Posadas
- December 24: Christmas Eve (Nochebuena)
- December 25: Christmas Day (Navidad)
- December 28: Day of the Sainted Innocents (Día de los Santos Inocentes)
- January 6: Three Kings Day (Día de Los Tres Reyes Magos)
- February 2: Candlemas (La Candelaria)
Celebration of the Virgin of Guadalupe: December 3–12
In Mexico, Christmas is not just a single day, but a whole season of Christmas-related celebrations which stretches from December 3 through February 2.
The Christmas season starts with celebrations that honor the patron saint of Mexico, the Virgin of Guadalupe, a powerful symbol of Mexico who plays a huge role in the country's political and religious history.
December 3 marks the start of a nine-day novena to the Virgin of Guadalupe. A novena is a Christian tradition of devotional praying that consists of private or public prayers repeated for nine successive days.
December 12, the end of the novena, is the feast day of the Virgin. The feast celebrates the fourth time that the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to Juan Diego, a devout Indian man born in 1474. On this day, many people of Mexican heritage (both in Mexico and abroad), celebrate with processions, special masses, serenades, dancing, and singing of the traditional song "Las Mañanitas" to honor the Lady of Guadalupe.
Some make pilgrimages to her shrine on a hill in Mexico City or other religious sites that venerate her. In some places, young boys dress up as Juan Diego and go to church to be blessed, in remembrance of how the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego in 1531 on the hill of Tepeyac (which is now within Mexico City).
Las Posadas: December 16–24
Then begins the season of las posadas. The name comes from the Spanish word for "inn," because of the role of an inn in the Christmas story. Posadas are processions or parties that take place to celebrate the Christmas season. They can take a variety of forms.
In their most traditional, they are processions (complete with candles and singing) in which children take the part of Mary and Joseph and go out into the neighborhood with a parade of other friends and family members to re-enact the part of the Christmas story where Mary and Joseph try to find a place to stay in Nazareth. Throughout the neighborhood, the children approach different houses looking for shelter. In one tradition, they are "rejected" from two houses before the third one takes them in.
In another, the procession divides into two at one house. Half of the group (on the outside) sings the part of the peregrinos, representing the Holy Family (Mary, Joseph, and the unborn Christ child) as they request shelter. The other half plays the part of the innkeeper. Eventually, the peregrinos are admitted and there is a party in the house, with food and drink like tamales, atole, buñuelos, and ponche (more on this below). There also might be a piñata!
The posada is one of the traditions that Spanish priests began in order to teach indigenous people about Christianity. The piñata was also a teaching tool. In its most traditional form, it has seven points, which represent the seven deadly sins. Its vessel represents Satan, which looks attractive and holds worldly goods, and the stick represents the Christian faith.
Though traditional posadas are now most frequently found in rural and low-income areas of Mexico, these eight days are still filled with parties in the evening to celebrate family and friends.
Christmas Eve: December 24
On Nochebuena (Christmas Eve), it is traditional for Mexican families to attend midnight mass before returning home to a late-night feast that includes foods like bacalao, ham, turkey, and mole, with ponche to drink. Gifts are not usually given at this time, but this is changing with increasing cultural influence from the United States. Santa has started coming to Mexico!
Christmas Day: December 25
Called La Navidad in Spanish, Christmas Day is a fairly quiet day to spend with family members and recuperate from the big celebration the night before.
Day of the Sainted Innocents: December 28
December 28th, or Día de los Santos Inocentes, originally marked the day when King Herod ordered the killing of all newborn boys in the village of Bethlehem to keep the Christ from arriving.
In Mexico, this has come to be celebrated as a day of practical jokes and tricks, like April Fool's Day. It is said that you do not have to return anything that someone lends you on this day.
New Year's Eve and New Year's Day: Dec. 31 and Jan. 1
New Year's Eve is celebrated in Mexico much like it is in other parts of the world—including parties and fireworks. One special tradition is eating twelve grapes quickly right at midnight—each grape is supposed to bring good luck for each month of the New Year.
Three Kings Day: January 6
Día de los Tres Reyes Magos celebrates the visit of the three kings to the newborn Christ child. This is the day when people usually give gifts (though this has started to also happen on Christmas Eve), though the gift-giving is not as important as the religious celebrations or time spent with the family. A certain food called rosca plays an important role on this day.
Rosca is a round fruit cake or bread that is baked in the shape of a circle. Also baked inside is a little figurine of baby Jesus. Whoever finds the figurine in their piece of rosca is responsible for paying for the tamales and atole of the Candlemas celebration. Tamales and atole are also served on this day alongside the rosca.
Note: Around the world in other Christian countries, this day is celebrated as the day of Epiphany.
Candlemas: February 2
Día de la Candelaria is the last day of the Mexican Christmas season. On this date, Mexicans bring the infant Jesus from their nativity scenes to church to receive a special blessing. Afterwards, families share tamales and atole (described below). This is the food that the person who found the Christ child in the rosca on Three King's Day is supposed to have purchased.
Mexican Christmas Food
Mexico has a wonderful tradition of food, using a rich cornucopia of flavors to create dishes which delight people around the world. Many people know foods like guacamole, burritos, pico de gallo (hot salsa), and quesadillas, but what kind of dishes are enjoyed at Christmas time?
Tamales are a dish made of seasoned meat (or other fillings) wrapped in cornmeal dough and baked or steamed in a corn husk or a banana peel. Tamales are often eaten on holidays, including during Las Posadas, Candlemas, Christmas Eve, and Three Kings Day. Since they are very time-consuming to make, there are often tamale-making parties—or tamaladas—where people get together in order to help make all of the tamales necessary for a party.
Ponche (con Piquete)
Ponche is a warm spiced fruit drink that is served all throughout the Christmas season, including at parties during Las Posadas as well as on Christmas Eve and New Year's. Though the recipes can vary widely, in general, it is made from simmering sugar, cinnamon, and seasonal fruits like tejocote and guava. Adults might add rum or tequila to the drink (which is the piquete—sting).
Many Latin American countries have some version of the buñuelo, which is a treat made of fried dough. In Mexico, buñuelos are flat and round—almost like a thin, crispy cookie—and are topped with powdered sugar or a sweet drizzle. They are served all throughout the holiday season, especially during Las Posadas (with ponche!).
Atole is another warm drink that, though consumed all year round, is very popular during the holiday season, especially for Candlemas. It is a sweetened drink based on masa (corn hominy flour) that also generally consists of water, unrefined cane sugar, cinnamon, and vanilla. Some versions also add fruit or chocolate.
Rosca is mentioned above—it is a cake or pastry baked in the shape of a circle and served on Three Kings Day (also called Epiphany in other parts of the Catholic world). Somewhere inside the cake, a little figurine of the baby Jesus is baked in—the person who finds the figurine or the trinket is responsible for providing tamales and atole on Candlemas. Recipes for the cake vary, though they are often decorated or baked with candied fruits.
Bacalao is a European import to Mexico where it's taken on its own unique flavors—it is a dish made of reconstituted dried, salted fish that is combined with other ingredients like tomatoes, onions, green olives, chiles, and garlic to make a kind of stew. This dish is often served for the midnight Christmas Eve feast as well as throughout the Christmas season.
Revoltijo de Romerita
Often served as part of the Christmas Eve feast, Revoltijo de Romerita is a dish that consists of dried shrimp, nopales, potatoes, and romeritos cooked in a mole sauce with ingredients like ancho, mulato, and pasilla chiles as well as almonds, cinnamon, garlic, onions, and breadcrumbs. Romeritos are a Mexican green that looks like rosemary and have a taste that some say resembles that of spinach.
In addition to tasty food and lots of religious events, there are also some other customs that play a big role in Christmas in Mexico.
The singing of carols (villancicos) is a common custom. There are many Christmas songs in the Spanish language which are traditionally sung in Mexico. Some are religious carols such as Noche de Paz (the Spanish language version of Silent Night), or Los Peces en el Rio (a traditional Mexican Christmas carol) and others are fun songs like Feliz Navidad.
Pastorelas are a traditional form of Christmas play in Mexico that are done by various groups—both amateur and professional—throughout the Christmas season. The word roughly translates to "shepherd's plays," and they began many centuries ago when Catholic priests would act out scenes from the Bible to teach the local population about Christianity. The tradition has grown into more humorous stories of the eternal struggle between good and evil.
Traditionally, the plays begin with an angel announcing the birth of Christ to a group of shepherds who then try to follow the star of Bethlehem to find the Christ child. On their way, however, they are delayed by continual attempts by the Devil to keep them from arriving.
Pastorelas can vary significantly from one to the next with the actors often improvising the script and different elements added based on the audience. The most traditional kind can be found in rural areas.
Flor de Nochebuena
This is perhaps the Mexican Christmas decoration which English-speakers are most familiar with—the red poinsettia flowers that adorn many Mexican and American homes and Christmas displays at Christmas time. There is a Mexican legend about how the flowers came to be associated with Christmas:
One Christmas Eve (nochebuena) a poor girl picked a few weeds to bring to church for the baby Jesus, for she could not afford anything else. The other people in her neighborhood looked down on her, but she believed that Jesus would appreciate any gift given in love. When she arrived at church, the weeds bloomed into a wonderful bunch of red flowers with thick green leaves. Then all the people around knew that they had witnessed a true Christmas miracle.
Nacimientos—or nativity scenes—are the most important part of Christmas decorations in Mexico. As in other parts of the world, the scene depicts the Holy Family, shepherds, and angels. The three kings are added on January 6th. In addition, Mexican renditions of the nativity scene often incorporate Spanish moss and don't add the actual Christ child until Christmas Eve.
On Candlemas, families bring the Christ child from their nativity scenes to the church for a blessing, often dressed in ornate clothing.
I hope you enjoyed learning about some Mexican Christmas traditions—Feliz Navidad!
© 2011 Marie McKeown
Norah on April 12, 2020:
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mason pearson on December 19, 2019:
maybe add some more about there traditions
Bobby on December 17, 2019:
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Noelia on December 16, 2019:
I like mexico because im a mexican and that I have family there
Roy on December 12, 2019:
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Roy on December 12, 2019:
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T on January 11, 2019:
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Bryan Alvarez on December 13, 2018:
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L on December 12, 2018:
Lucky me I found this website
a student on December 11, 2018:
This was great! BTW, the tamales look really good. My family is Puerto Rican and I realized that Mexico has almost same traditions as us. We celebrate el día de los Tres Reyes Magos as well!
bob on December 10, 2018:
what is their flag
Jao on December 09, 2018:
Can we please just agknowledge that first picture is definately santa fe? which is not in Mexico......
Tira Guerra on December 03, 2018:
I am Mexican and I have live in the USA since I was 16. Now that I am a mom I want to do the posada at my house with all my family. Thank you so much for this article! I hope I can pass this tradition to my son and daughter. Feliz Navidad!!
Nick on December 01, 2018:
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Cary Dutts on November 29, 2018:
I will be spending my first Christmas in Mexico this year. I wanted to know what to look for to experience a authentic Mexican Christmas.Thank you you have been very useful...unless you are celebrating Dia de los Santos innocents early?
student on May 12, 2018:
thx I'm doing Navidad project so..... THX A LOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
TT on April 12, 2018:
.... on January 02, 2018:
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Raeliannah on December 11, 2017:
this is the true way to be happy in mexico
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it was okay, i wanted to know typical presents in mexico though
Allisonwhatintheworld on December 11, 2017:
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Bre on December 09, 2017:
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Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on February 26, 2016:
I'm glad it was helpful!
Maria on February 24, 2016:
HI I love this website it is very helpful for my project
Jose Juan Gutierrez from Mexico City on December 18, 2015:
Great hub! Me xican traditions are some great ways to forget those who brought them to America. I personally, like the breaking of piñatas and the meaning behind it.
Goldia from Illinois on December 12, 2014:
This is a nice Hub. I enjoy learning about other traditions.
peachy from Home Sweet Home on December 11, 2014:
wow, mexican christmas is indeed different and the food, really unique!
people on November 12, 2014:
thanks this helped with my project
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 10, 2013:
Me alegro! (I'm glad)
MADS on December 10, 2013:
This really helped us thank you! FELIZ NAVIDAD
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 22, 2012:
I hope you enjoy your Mexican Christmas!
Liz on December 22, 2012:
Our family wanted to do something different this year for Christmas, so we are having a Mexican Christmas, I have found lots of gread food ideas., and costume ideas and then just read your page here to help with conversation.. I have had a lot of fun and all our family has learned a lot doing research to make our day more authentic. Thanks for all the info.....
NATHAN A PATETRSON on December 18, 2012:
thanks that will help me out on my project
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 18, 2012:
Thanks for the feedback!
sarahshuihan on December 17, 2012:
Wow, I learned a lot from this hub! Thank you for writing this:)
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 14, 2012:
Glad to know you enjoyed it. I also have hubs about Irish Christmas traditions and Eastern Orthodox traditions if you are interested...
FullOfLoveSites from United States on December 14, 2012:
It's also great to know the Christmas traditions from other countries. Enjoyable to read. :)
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 13, 2012:
I am glad you both enjoyed it!
Dale Anderson from The High Seas on December 13, 2012:
My wife is Mexican so we both enjoyed this hub.
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 12, 2012:
That's great - thanks for the feedback!
bob on December 12, 2012:
thanks very helpful on my project XD
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 10, 2012:
You are welcome!
Jeremy on December 09, 2012:
This helped my Spanish project a lot thanks!!
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on November 30, 2012:
Glad to have helped - feliz navidad!
Andy on November 29, 2012:
this helped me w/ my spanish log...it had all the info. i needed!!! its also nicely written. the best log ive gotten was this 1 with 120 points!!! YAY! :D
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on October 21, 2012:
I am glad to hear it Elizabeth!
Elizabeth Escobar on October 21, 2012:
Very informative, you helped summarize and provided other events that could be further researched on. Lots of help on the project I'm working on!
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on March 21, 2012:
Thanks Senora C!
Corey from Northfield, MA on March 12, 2012:
Nicely written hub. I enjoy seeing how other parts of the world celebrate Christmas and it is nice to see that we have picked up some of our traditions from Mexico. Buying a poinsetta during the holiday for one. Thanks for sharing.
hhunterr from Highway 24 on December 20, 2011:
My sister married into a family with Hispanic heritage. This helps. Thanx!
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on December 19, 2011:
I'm glad I could help Tia. Congratulations on your 'a'!
tia on December 18, 2011:
thank you very you help me get a on my homework
Marie McKeown (author) from Ireland on November 13, 2011:
Thanks Gaelach! I really enjoyed researching this hub, with help from a Mexican friend. They have a lot of fun in Mexico at Christmas - I can't wait to experience it directly some day!!
Ghaelach on November 13, 2011:
Now this is a nice hub. Very interesting and informative.
We tend to forget about what happens and how Christmas is celebrated in other countries as we are to busy with our own activities.
It's interesting that the festivities go on for so long in Mexico when you compare them to ours.
What do we have?
Maybe a works dinner, christmas eve in the church, christmas day, boxing day, new years eve and then it's all forgotten.
Yes there is the visits and gift giving and the crib with the baby and the three wise men, but what i mean is, it's all squashed into a few days with hardly any time to appreciate what it's all about.
Take care Marie and have a nice sunday.