Ced earned a bachelor's degree in communication studies in 1999. His interests include history, traveling, and mythology.
The Chinese Ghost Festival
Smoky ashes, scattered paper offerings, and colorful street performances. These are common occurrences in Chinese cities each year during the seventh month of the lunar calendar. Otherwise known as the Chinese Ghost Month or the Hungry Ghost Festival.
Believed to be the month when spirits of the deceased are permitted to visit the mortal realm, the lunar seventh month is for many Chinese, also a time of many taboos. Few, for example, will opt to marry or undergo surgery during this period.
In turn, the fifteenth day of the month is considered the most significant. Referred to in Taoism as Zhongyuan Jie (中元节), this is said to be the day to pray for absolution of sins; specifically, the sins of deceased ancestors.
Over time, rituals observed during the lunar seventh month developed important social functions as well. In modern cities like Singapore, “seventh-month” rituals and dinners are regularly attended by politicians. Such events are considered among the most important community events each year.
Last but not least, the festival is one of the Four Great Chinese Ancestral Festivals. It is, however, distinct and separate from the Qingming Festival. The latter is the Chinese version of tomb-sweeping day.
The Festival Is Both 30 Days and Just One Day
Strictly speaking, the Chinese Ghost Festival takes place on the fifteenth day of the lunar seventh month. However, the entire seventh month is also regarded by the Chinese as the ghost month (鬼月; guiyue), i.e., the time when spirits are allowed to visit the mortal realm. According to folkloric legend, the gates of hell are open throughout these 30 days.
Rituals and prayers happening on any day other than the fifteenth are therefore widely considered acceptable. Correspondingly, in some literature, the festival could also refer to all 30 days of the seventh month.
The Fourteenth Instead of the Fifteenth
Some Southern Chinese communities “celebrate” the festival on the fourteenth instead of the fifteenth, the most notable example being Hong Kong. In Hong Kong horror movies, the “spookiest” day of the ghost month is always stated as the fourteenth.
In Taoism, the Festival Is Called “Zhongyuan Jie”
In the Taoist pantheon, the San Guan (三官) are three high-ranking officials whose positions are second only to the Jade Emperor. They are:
- Tian Guan (天官): The Official of Heaven who bestows happiness.
- Di Guan (地官): The Official of the Earth who pardons sins.
- Shui Guan (水官): The Official of Water who assists with averting misfortunes.
Respectively, the birthdays of these important deities are on the fifteenth day of the first, seventh, and tenth months of the lunar calendar. All three dates are collectively referred to as the San Yuan (三元).
In the case of Di Guan, his birthday is also known as Zhongyuan (中元); the Chinese character 中 means middle. Because of his power to pardon sins, Di Guan is prayed to on his birthday for the forgiveness of sins, particularly, the sins of deceased ancestors. Over time, this ritual evolved into the Zhongyuan Jie, or Chinese Ghost Festival, that we know of today.
Originally a Summer Harvest Festival?
Zhongyuan celebrations/rituals existed as early as the Han Dynasty. However, ancient historical annals such as Shi Ji described the festival as a day of gratitude towards agricultural gods. One that takes place at the end of summer.
The festival is further believed to have evolved into its current form after the introduction of Buddhism into China. Taoist “content,” so to speak, was integrated into the Buddhist customs for the salvation of the dead. Today, most if not all Zhongyuan activities involve a mixture of practices from both faiths.
In Chinese Buddhism, the Festival Is Called “Yulan Jie”
According to the Yulanpen Sutra, Maudgalyayana, or Mujianlian (目犍連) in Chinese, achieved superior knowledge after studying under Gautama Buddha. He then resolved to locate his deceased mother.
Mujianlian succeeded in his quest but to his despair, his mother has been reborn as a hungry ghost, or Preta, because of her sins. Worse, when Mujianlian tried to offer her food, his mother could not eat any. All food touched by her transformed into ambers.
Deeply distressed, Mujianlian sought advice from the Buddha and was told that the only way to save his mother is to offer alms to the monastic community. Only through the combined efforts of the monastic community could any suffering deceased be saved.
Adopting this advice, Mujianlian did as told and in gratitude, many Buddhist monks prayed for the deliverance of his mother. Ultimately, their prayers freed the wretched woman from her karmic punishment.
Over time, this practice of praying for the suffering dead became ensconced in Chinese culture, with prayers usually happening on the fifteenth day of the seventh lunar month. Today, the fifteenth day is known in Chinese Buddhism as Yulan Jie (盂兰节), or the Yulan Festival. Mass prayer rituals on this day are also called Yulan Shenghui (盂兰盛会), or the Grand Gathering of Yulan. Both names are derived from the Yulanpen Sutra, the source of Mujianlian’s tale.
The Festival Is Also Known as the Hungry Ghost Festival in English
The Buddhist origin of the festival resulted in it also called the Hungry Ghost Festival in English. In some countries, this macabre name is even used in travel literature. To give an example, the Singapore Tourism Board regularly promotes annual “Hungry Ghost Festival celebrations” as a major cultural attraction.
In spoken or written Chinese, though, this alternate name is rarely used, if at all. The Chinese term for “hungry ghost” carries severe negative connotations. It is often also used to mock shamelessly greedy people.
No Chinese would thus refer to deceased ancestors this way; doing so immediately implies one’s lineage is disgraceful. Needless to say, no one would want to offend wandering spirits with such an offensive term too.
Paper Offerings Both Simple and Elaborate Are Burnt
The representative event of the Chinese Ghost Festival is the burning of paper money and offerings known as Joss Paper. Other than during formal prayer rituals, Joss Paper are also widely burned by the Chinese outside or near their homes. The latter practice is called Shao Jie Yi (燒街衣), which translates to “burning clothes for the deceased at streets.”
In modern times, such paper offerings could get extremely elaborate too. Everything from jewelry to pets, to cars, to even mini-apartments, are replicated for “burning.” For most Non-Chinese, the sight of such otherworldly offerings being consumed by flames could thus be an unforgettable spectacle, especially when surrounded by huge smoky columns of smoldering incense.
Without surprise, the city-wide burning of paper offerings, all month long, has come under scrutiny in recent years. In response, some governments and religious organizations have encouraged worshipers to burn lesser, to only burn at designated spots, and to use low emission burners.
Food Offerings Are Left at Communal Altars Throughout the Day
Some Chinese communities set up communal altars and maintain these throughout the seventh lunar month. Other than urns for the burning of joss sticks and incense, food offerings such as tea, Chinese candy, cake, even roasted meat and cooked dishes, would be present. Such altars even welcome donations of Joss Paper. What’s collected would then be burned together on a designated day.
These communal altars are, however, not for the spirits of ancestors. Instead, they are for the “good brothers,” i.e., wandering, forgotten spirits visiting our world during the ghost month. Other than an act of charity, the offerings are to convince such spirits not to create trouble when passing by.
Trivia: “Good brothers,” or hao xiongdi (好兄弟), is synonymous with ghosts in some Chinese dialects.
Colorful Street Performances Are Common
Other than huge piles of paper offerings being burned, colorful and vibrant street performances are a feature of the Chinese Ghost Festival in Singapore, Malaysia, and parts of Indonesia. In Chinese, these are known as Qiyue Getai (七月歌台).
Typically hosted on makeshift stages, such performances could be traditional or modern. Traditional shows would consist of Chinese opera or puppet performances, while modern ones would feature singers performing popular hits.
Importantly, such performances are not meant for the living. Rather, they are for the entertainment of invisible spirits.
The above said, there are no taboos at all about watching. Performances helmed by popular troupes thus often enjoy huge crowds of “living” audiences year after year.
In Singapore, Seventh Month Community Dinners Are Common
In Singapore, seventh-month community dinners are often hosted together with street performances and prayer rituals. Diners typically pay a fixed sum to attend. Throughout the diner, there would be auctioning of so-called fortune items too.
For some Chinese business owners, being able to bring home certain fortune items each year is considered crucial for sustained business success. An example of such items is the popular “black gold.” (See gallery below)
And as mentioned in the introduction, such “seventh-month dinners” are important socio-political events in Singapore, as Members of Parliament or ministers would often be the VIPs. In essence, these dinners provide valuable networking and publicity opportunities. Singapore politicians, both elected and aspiring, thus consider attendance crucial for votes.
The Chinese Ghost Festival Has Many Taboos, but Few Have Historical or Religious Origins
With the gates of hell wide open, and with potentially vengeful, invisible spirits wandering everywhere for an entire month, many dos and don’t are naturally associated with the Chinese Ghost Festival.
That said, the origins of most are difficult to trace. Many are also local customs. Generally speaking, however, the following are widely observed by Chinese throughout the world.
- This "do not" is the most well-known. The first row of seats at street performances is meant for spirits. Under no circumstances should a person sit at this row.
- Street offerings, including ashes, should not be messed with. They should only be cleared the next day. (To mess with any is akin to disrupting someone’s meal)
- Unburned paper offerings in the streets should not be stepped onto.
- Needless to say, altars should not be messed with. The underside of altars should not be entered.
- Weddings are rarely held during the Hungry Ghost Month. Surgeries and other medical procedures are avoided as well.
- Whenever possible, shifting into new homes and the starting of companies are deferred.
- Umbrellas should not be opened indoors. In fact, it’s best to leave all umbrellas outside one’s home, as they are believed to be great hiding spots for spirits.
In past decades, the elderly would also caution against venturing out after sunset, or using the word for “ghost,” or going near bodies of water, or swimming, or wearing black. Even walking about with unruly hair is a taboo. Doing so will “invite” ghosts to accompany you. You risk alarming passer-bys too.
However, many such taboos are now incompatible with modern lifestyles and work. As such, a good many are nowadays seldom observed.
Many Chinese Horror Movies Were Inspired by the Ghost Festival
Like Halloween in the West, the Chinese Ghost Festival has long been a popular premise for Chinese and Cantonese horror movies. Some notable examples are:
- Thou Shall Not Swear (七月十四不见不散): Also known as The Halloween Murders, this Hong Kong 1993 horror flick begins and ends on a promise made on the fourteenth day. One that resulted in inexplicable deaths.
- Believe It or Not (七月又十四信不信由你): A bizarre murder on the night of the fourteenth may or may not be the work of hungry ghosts.
- Hungry Ghost Ritual (盂兰神功): A reluctant new owner of a performance troupe is besieged by supernatural disturbances. He then tries to appease the spirits with the eponymous prayer ritual.
- Where Got Ghost? (吓到笑): The third segment of this Singaporean horror-comedy anthology sees three brothers grouching to their deceased mother during annual seventh-month prayers. Mom decides to put an end to their inane complaints.
- 881: This Singaporean movie is not about the Ghost Festival per se; rather, it’s a celebration of getai, i.e., seventh-month street performance culture. The movie is a dazzling showcase of how the festival is celebrated in Singapore.
Similar to Western sitcoms like The Simpsons, long-running Chinese and Cantonese drama series will typically have a “seventh-month” scary episode too. For example, the popular Hong Kong sitcom, Come Home Love: Lo and Behold, will always screen a ghostly episode during the festival.
Other Asian Countries Have Their Own Version of the Festival
Several Asian countries have their own version of the festival.
In Japan, the festival is celebrated as Obon, and depending on which part of Japan you’re in, the date is either the fifteenth of July or August. Like the Chinese festival, Obon is all about the remembrance of ancestors too. The festival, however, is also famous for its colorful decorations and vibrant dances.
Over in Vietnam, the festival is known as Tết Trung Nguyên and is seen as a day to appease hungry spirits. Some Vietnamese will release birds and fishes to accumulate religious merits.
Lastly, other Indochina countries such as Thailand and Cambodia each have their own versions of the festival to appease/feed spirits that have returned to Earth. However, in these countries, the festival takes place in September or October.
It’s All About Filial Piety and Charity
Regardless of origin story or local customs, the Chinese Ghost Festival is all about filial piety and charity.
Filial piety, or xiao (孝), is one of the most important virtues in Chinese culture. Not just for one’s parents but also for one’s ancestors. Likewise, being charitable to the forgotten, the helpless, and the desperate is considered morally superior.
With both virtues still greatly valued by Chinese worldwide, the “celebration” of the Ghost Festival is very likely to continue. The associated colorful customs and street performances will undoubtedly remain popular for a long time too.
Appendix: Chinese Joss Paper Offerings. From Gold to Money, to Clothing and Accessories.
Full Recording of a 2022 Getai Performance
What Are China's Horrific Ten Courts of Hell?
Like other cultures, the Chinese view Hell as a place of immense suffering. A ghastly place where sinful souls are tortured for sins committed when alive.
Chinese Gods of Hell – An Introduction and Listing
An introduction to the many gods and deities associated by the Chinese with hell.
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© 2021 Ced Yong